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Where Contamination Comes From

The Filter Guys

New Fluids

Adding new fluid can be a source of contamination. Even though it’s fresh from the drum, new engine oil isn’t clean. (It may look clean, but, remember, the human eye can only see a particle the size of about 40 μm.) Also, diesel fuel cleanliness varies from pump to pump. Typical fuel cleanliness levels coming out of the pump are ISO rated at 22/21/18. (ISO cleanliness code of 22/21/18 translates to a particle count of 20,000 to 40,000 per millilitre for particles of 4 μm and greater; 10,000 to 20,000 per millilitre for particles of 6 μm and greater; and 1300 to 2500 per millilitre for particles of 14 μm and greater), and water content is typically 200 to 300 ppm. Never assume your fluids are clean until it has been filtered.

 

Built-In

Built-in contamination, also called primary contamination, is caused during the manufacture, assembly and testing of the engine and its components. Metal filings, small burrs, dirt or sand and other contaminants are routinely found in initial clean up filtration of newly manufactured engines.

 

Ingressed

Ingressed or external contamination comes from the environment surrounding the engine or vehicle. Dirt can enter the engine liquid supply through crank case breathers or fuel tank breathers and vents and the air intake system. Ingressed moisture, particularly, can cause longer term problems. As a hot system cools at night, cool moisture-laden air can be drawn into the engine or fuel tank; as the air condenses, water is released into the engine or fuel tank. Water in excess of 0.5% by volume in a hydrocarbon-based fluid accelerates the formation of acids, sludge and oxidation that can attack internal components, cause rust, and adversely affect lubrication properties. The severity of ingression and type of contaminant are dictated by the applications and environment.

 

Induced

Maintenance procedures can introduce contamination into the engine. Opening the engine allows airborne particles to enter. Removing air filters, opening oil caps, fuel tank caps and removal of oil and fuel filters are all possible sources for introducing contamination to an engine. Keep your system closed as much as possible and take care to be sure everything that goes into the engine is as clean as possible. One common example is very often funnels are used fill the engine with oil. The oily funnel will collect dirt between uses. The funnel should be properly cleaned before using it to fill the engine with oil.

 

In-Operation

The major sources of contamination in the engine are the combustion by-products (soot) and oxidation of the fluids in the engine due to the thermal stressing. Wear-generated contaminants are a hazard during engine operation.

 

 

 

The circuit actually generates additional particles as the fluid comes into contact with the precision machined surfaces of cylinder walls and pistons, injector needles and pistons and crankshaft bearings. Contaminant levels can keep doubling with every new particle generated. The result can be catastrophic if these contaminants are not properly filtered out of the system.

 

Rubber & Elastomers

Due to temperature, time, and high-velocity fluid streams, rubber compounds and elastomers degrade—thus releasing particulates into the fluid.

 

Biodiesel

Biodiesel can support biological growth and generate organic contamination and microbes.

 

Donaldson Filtration

What we need to spec up your hydraulic filter requirements.

The Filter Guys

What we need to spec up your hydraulic filter requirements.

When looking to identify a filter housing for your specific problem we need to know a little bit about what you are trying to achieve and where in your hydraulic circuit you need to fit it. To do this we require a few key pieces of information to ensure correct fit and operation for you. That being:

Port Sizes. What size pipe-work are you fitting the housing into? In many cases this is a BSP measurement.

Operating Pressure. Is the filter operating as a return line, tank top return, pressure or suction filter, or is it simply an in-tank suction strainer?

Flow rate. What is the flow of the hydraulic oil in litres per minute?

Micron. It is important to get the micron rating correct to ensure that you are protecting delicate parts of your hydraulic system further along the flow route from damaging wear particles.

With this information we can then source and supply the correct filter unit. Contact us on 01902 491118 with your hydraulic filter enquiries or contact us via our website Online Enquiry Form.

We can also offer a range of replacement filter elements and housing indicators to help keep you informed when your filters require changing.

Hydraulic Filtration Systems and accessories.

Donaldson develops, manufactures and markets a full line of hydraulic filters for the protection of machinery and components in hundreds of applications on heavy duty mobile equipment. When you need high, medium or low pressure filters, filter housings, filter heads, replacement cartridges, spin-ons or hydraulic accessories, turn to Sterling Filtration, authorised distributors of Donaldson filters. We also offer a broad line of replacement filter elements.

Donaldson heavy duty high pressure filters sit behind pumps and other prime movers to protect critical hydraulic components such as cylinders, motors and valves. All contain our Synteq ® synthetic filter media, specially developed by Donaldson for high efficiency liquid filtration. Working pressures range from 140 to 420 bar and static pressures from 310 to 830 bar.

Donaldson Duramax ®, well known as the highest rated medium pressure filters available, are most often used in return line positions. As spin-ons, they are particularly well-suited for the duplex circuits. Donaldson Synteq ® and cellulose media are available. Duramax working pressures range from 25 to 70 bar and static pressures from 55 to 140 bar.

Low pressure filters are the most commonly used type of filters in hydraulic circuits, used most often as return line filters in applications with working pressures up to 10 bar and static pressure up to 20 bar.

An expanded line of accessories for hydraulic lines and reservoirs is also available. Finish off your hydraulic circuit with filter service indicators, pressure gauges, test point assemblies, valves, flanges, reservoir level gauges, sight glasses, a variety of tank and filter breathers, caps vents, plugs, strainers, diffusers, magnets and more.

Donaldson is proud to offer a broad selection of hydraulic replacement cartridges and spin-ons to the aftermarket via its distributors. Choose from our many different filter media to find exactly the right filter to help you meet the cleanliness requirements for your hydraulic system.

We Offer Donaldson Engine and Hydraulic Aftermarket Filters to replace Baldwin Filters in the UK.

The Filter Guys

We Offer Donaldson Engine and Hydraulic Aftermarket Filters to replace Baldwin Filters in the UK.

At Sterling Filtration Ltd we offer over 3,000 Donaldson equivalent filters to replace your Baldwin filters. They cover a huge range of engine filters (main air, safety air, lubricating oil, fuel, fuel water separators) and hydraulic system filters.

Please check out our range by clicking on the Donaldson Brand Icon below.

If you have any requirements for Baldwin equivalent filters please give us a call today on 01902 491118. We are here to service your filter needs!

Filters for Trucks

The Filter Guys

Filters for Trucks.

The range of trucks in the haulage and transportation sector in the UK is vast and they all require engine and hydraulic filter elements. Our range of aftermarket filters covers a huge range of these applications including filters for: Dennis Eagle, ERF, Foden, Hino, Hyundai, Isuzu, Iveco, DAF, MAN, Mercedes, Scania, Volvo and many, many more.

Regular, scheduled maintenance of your engine and hydraulic circuit filters can avoid breakdowns and lengthy downtime of your machine. Holding a set of filters in stock can also reduce the amount of time that your machine is down when the lead time for replacement filters is more than a few days.

At Sterling Filtration we endeavour to hold as much stock for as many machines as possible. If you have an urgent filter requirement, a breakdown to repair or are just looking for competitively priced filters for stock please give us a call today.

Donaldson Filtration

Heavy Duty Applications

The Filter Guys

Our aftermarket filtration range covers a huge section of heavy duty applications.

The heavy duty aftermarket in the UK is made up of many hundreds of machines and static equipment that require regular filter servicing to maintain their optimum performance. We can identify and hold large stocks of filters for machines including: Atlast Copco, Barford, Benford, Bomag, Case Poclain, Caterpillar, Doosan Daewoo, Demag, Fiat Hitachi and Kobelco, Fuchs, Hanix, Hyundai, Iveco, John Deere, Kaeser, Komatsu, Kubota, Liebherr, Lombardini, Massey Ferguson, Matbro, Mitsubishi, New Holland, Samsung, Shaeff, Sennebogen, Takeuchi, Terex, Volvo, Yanmar and many, many more.

Regular, scheduled maintenance of your engine and hydraulic circuit filters can avoid breakdowns and lengthy downtime of your machine. Holding a set of filters in stock can also reduce the amount of time that your machine is down when the lead time for replacement filters is more than a few days.

At Sterling Filtration we endeavour to hold as much stock for as many machines as possible. If you have an urgent filter requirement, a breakdown to repair or are just looking for competitively priced filters for stock please give us a call today.

Donaldson Filtration

Removing water from your hydraulic system.

The Filter Guys

If you are running a hydraulic system of any kind it is important that you avoid getting water into your lubricating fluid. Water ingression causes corrosion to your hydraulic system and can lead to breakdowns and long down times for costly repairs. It is essential you take the precautions to safeguard your system by removing water from your hydraulic system.

Prevention is better than cure! Fortunately, Donaldson Filtration have the answer to the problem:

P561183 (Element) & P563268 (Head Assembly)

 

The SP50/60 spin-on filter is an economical, low-pressure model with a broad selection of media ratings. The die cast aluminium head and steel body ensure strength and durability – perfect for a wide variety of mobile and in-plant applications.

Applications:

  • Fluid Conditioning Systems
  • In-Plant Systems
  • Mobile Equipment
  • Power Transmissions
  • Process Systems

Donaldson’s mix and match system of in-stock heads and filters allow for a speedy availability. There are a variety of media type and configuration options available and filters are interchangeable with HBK05 filters for added versatility!

Features:

  • Strong, durable die-cast aluminium head and steel body construction
  • Filters ship with a 3-seal kit containing “L”, square, and O-ring gaskets
  • Working pressure to: 150 psi/ 10.3 bar
  • Rated static burst to: 250 psi/ 17.2 bar
  • Flow range to: 60 gpm/ 227 lpm

Porting size options:

  • 1-1/4″ NPT
  • SAE-20 O-ring

Bypass ratings of:

  • 25 psi/ 1.7 bar
  • 15 psi/ 1.03 bar
  • 5 psi/ 0.34 bar
  • 2.5 psi/ 0.17 bar
  • No bypass

Available Media Types

  • Donaldson exclusive Synteq™ – synthetic fiber media for greater filtration efficiency and higher dust-holding capacity
  • Natural fibre cellulose
  • Stainless steel wire-mesh
  • Water absorbing media

If you are looking to source a hydraulic housing to remove water from your hydraulic oil, give Sterling Filtration Ltd a call on 01902 491118 for a competitive quote.

 

Hydraulic Filtration Pressure Drop

The Filter Guys

Hydraulic Filtration Pressure Drop

 

The difference between the inlet pressure and the outlet pressure is called pressure drop or differential pressure. It’s symbolized by ∆P. ∆P is an irrecoverable loss of total pressure caused by the filter, and is mostly due to frictional drag on the fibers in the media.

Differential drop drop may increase as the particulate rating or efficiency of the filter (as expressed by its beta ratio) gets better. ∆P also increases as the filter is being loaded with contaminant.

 

Four Major Factors Contribute to Pressure Drop

 

  1. Filter Media.

 

Media is, of course, the main factor influencing pressure drop; indeed, it causes pressure drop. That’s why having a low-friction, high-flowing media is so important. The natural cellulose or paper fibers (shown at left) typically used in filtration are large, rough, and as irregular as nature made them.

Donaldson developed a synthetic media with smooth, rounded fibers, consistently shaped so that we can control the fiber size and distribution pattern throughout the media mat, and still allow the smoothest, least inhibited fluid flow. Our synthetic media is named Synteq™.

Synteq fibers offer the least amount of resistance to fluid passing through the media. Consistency of fiber shape allows the maximum amount of contaminantcatching surface area and specific pore size control. The result is media with predictable filtration efficiencies at removing specified contaminants (i.g., 4 µm) and maximum dirt holding capacity.

Natural cellulose fibers are larger than synthetic fibers and jagged in shape, so controlling size of the pores in the media mat is difficult and there is less open volume. In most applications this results in higher ∆P as compared to synthetic filters. Higher beta ratings mean there are smaller pores in the media; smaller media pores cause more flow resistance, in turn causing higher pressure drop.

 

  1. Dirt.

 

Contaminant As dirt gets caught in the media, it eventually begins to build up and fill the pore openings. As the pore openings shrink, the differential pressure (pressure drop) increases. This is called restriction. This photo from our scanning electron microscope shows actual dirt particles building up in the media pores.

Excessive dirt in the media can cause dirt migration or even filter failure. Dirt migration occurs when the restriction is so great that the differential pressure pushes dirt deeper into the media and, eventually, through the media and back into the system. Filter failure occurs when the restriction becomes so high that the filter cartridge collapses (outside-in flow) or bursts (inside-out flow) to relieve the upstream pressure.

To avoid such catastrophe, use of a filter service indicator is recommended. It measures the pressure drop across the filter, then signals when the filter is ‘full’ and needs to be changed.

 

  1. Flow

 

Higher flows create higher pressure drop. With fast moving fluid, there will be more friction causing higher pressure drop across the media.

 

  1. Fluid Viscosity

 

Measured in centistokes (cSt) or Saybolt Seconds Universal (SSU or SUS), fluid viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to flow. As fluid viscosity increases, the cSt rating increases. Higher fluid viscosities also mean higher pressure drop because the thicker oil has a tougher time passing through the layer of media fibers. Cold start fluid is a good example of highly viscous fluid. See chart below.

Filter media, amount of contamination, the flow rate, and fluid viscosity are all factors in the importance of sizing the filter for the system requirements. Filters that are too small won’t be able to handle the system flow rate and will create excessive pressure drop from the start. The results could be filter operation in the bypass mode, filter failure, component malfunction, or catastrophic system failures. Filters that are too large for the system can be too costly. Oversized filters require more system oil and higher cost replacement filters. Optimal sizing is best.

Types of Hydraulic Fluid

The Filter Guys

 

Types of Hydraulic Fluid

There are many kinds of fluids used for power, but they can basically be called petroleum-based fluids, biodegradable fluids, and fire-resistant fluids. A brief description of some of the types in each category are listed below; for details on these or others, consult your filter supplier or refer to a reputable manual on hydraulics, such as the Lightning Reference Handbook, published by Berendsen Fluid Power, Whittier, CA 90601.

 

Petroleum Based (Hydrocarbon)

These are the most commonly used fluids in hydraulic systems. Their major advantages are low cost, good lubricity, relatively low/non-toxicity, and common availability. This type of fluid is not just plain oil; rather, it is a special formulation with additives that make it suitable for hydraulic systems. Mostly, the additives inhibit or prevent rust, oxidation, foam and wear.

 

Variations:

  • Straight oils: same as petroleum-based oil but without the additives.
  • Automatic transmission fluids (ATF): excellent low temp viscosity and very high VI.
  • Military hydraulic fluids (ie: MIL-H-5606 and MIL-H-83282): also called ‘red oil’ because of the colour. Low viscosity, good for cold temp operations, but may have to be modified for pumps.

 

Fire Resistant Fluids.

There are two types of fire-resistant fluids commonly used in hydraulic applications: Phosphate Esters and High Water Based Fluids (HWBF). Although generally not as viscous at cold temperatures as petroleum-based fluids, they are fire resistant due to their high content of non-combustible material. Very useful in overcoming the likelihood of fire caused by a broken hydraulic line spraying petroleum fluid into a pit of molten metal, onto a hot manifold, into a heat treating furnace, or other ignition source.

 

Some types of HWBF:

  • Oil-in-water emulsions (HFA): typically 95% water and 5% oil, with the oil droplets dispersed throughout the water. Provide some fire resistance, but due to oil content, other fluids are superior.
  • Water-in-oil emulsions (invert emulsion HFB): typically 40% water and 60% oil, with the water dispersed in the oil. Provide some fire resistance, but due to oil content, other fluids are superior.
  • Water-glycol (HFC): typically 40% water and 60% glycol. Excellent fire resistance. Since glycol is an antifreeze, water-glycol can be used at lower temps. NOTE: HWBF may require reduced pressure rating of pumps and other components.

 

HFD Fluids.

The HFD group is a classification given to several different types of synthetic products that do not contain petroleum oil or water. Phosphate ester fluids were the first HFD fluids and are the most fire resistant within the HFD family. Not as popular today, their use declined due to poor environmental performance, limited compatibility, and high cost.

Certain phosphate esters have very high auto-ignition temperatures and are still used in specific applications, such as aircraft and power generation.

 

A common brand is known as Sydrol® (registered trademark of Solution, Inc.). Skydrol requires EPR seal for chemical compatibility. Today most phosphate esters have been replaced by polyol esters. Based on organic esters, polyol esters are the most common HFD fluids used today. They offer good inherent fire resistance, good compatibility with system materials, excellent hydraulic fluid performance, and easy conversion from petroleum oil. In addition, the organic nature of these fluids gives them good environmental performance in biodegradability and aquatic toxicity. Another type of synthetic, fire resistant fluids have been formulated for certain niche markets.

 

Water free polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) feature extended fluid life and good environmental performance. Technically an HFD fluid, PAGs (also known as polyalphaolefins (PAOs) are more often used for their biodegradability and overall environmental friendliness. This group also contains the synthetic silicone (siloxane) oils, known for their anti-foaming properties.

 

Biodegradable.

With increasing concern about the environmental impact of hydraulic system leaks and spills, biodegradable fluids are receiving expanded usage, particularly in Europe. There are two types of common biodegradable hydraulic fluids: 1) vegetable-based oils, such as sunflower or rapeseed oils, and 2) synthetic oils like diesters, etc. Generally, systems using biodegradable fluids are derated for maximum and minimum temperatures. Users who replace standard hydraulic oils with biodegradable oils must check with filtration component manufacturers to confirm that the fluid and components are compatible.

 

SCHUPP FILTERS NOW AVAILABLE

The Filter Guys

Schupp filters are now available from Sterling Filtration Ltd. Schupp are a worldwide brand offering 1000’s of aftermarket air, lube oil, fuel and hydraulic filters for many common on and off highway applications. We can offer competitively priced Schupp original filters, what ever your current Schupp original requirements may be.

If you require Schupp filter replacement elements please give us a call today.

WIX FILTERS NOW AVAILABLE

The Filter Guys

Wix filters are now available from Sterling Filtration Ltd. Wix are a worldwide brand offering 1000’s of aftermarket air, lube oil, fuel and hydraulic filters for many common on and off highway applications. We can offer competitively priced Wix original filters, what ever your current Wix original requirements may be.

If you require WAM filter replacement elements please give us a call today.

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