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Full-Flow, By-pass or Two-Stage Filtration

The Filter Guys

The difference between the various lube filter configurations can be confusing. There are three common filtration approaches.

Full Flow Filtration

Full flow filters receive near 100% of the regulated flow in an engine lube system. Full flow filters provide essential engine protection for maximum cold flow performance and filter life. Most lube filters available today are full flow.

By-pass (Secondary) Filtration

By-pass filtration is when a small portion of the system’s oil flow (usually 5-10%) is diverted back to the sump or oil pan before reaching the primary filter. A by-pass filter captures smaller particles than the full-flow filter. Because of the increased efficiency of a bypass filter, they are more restrictive. To optimize restriction, a bypass filter should be located in a separate flow path, as illustrated on the right.

Two-stage Filtration

A two-stage filter design attempts to combine the features of both a full flow and by-pass filter. The two-in-one design significantly increases restriction, causing shorter filter life and decreased cold flow performance. Poor cold flow performance starves the engine of oil during start up, leaving the engine temporarily unprotected. This may lead to increased engine wear that could result in premature repairs or even engine replacement.

Extended Oil Drain Intervals

The Filter Guys

Extended Oil Drain Intervals Oil service intervals are pre-determined by engine manufacturers (OEM’s) and are designed to provide maximum engine protection under a wide variety of conditions. While a majority of equipment owners follow these guidelines there is a growing trend to extend oil service intervals beyond the OEM recommendations. However, Extended Oil Drain Intervals (EODI) are not for every application. To fully understand the risks involved you must look at the key factors affecting EODI’s.

 

Engine lubricating oil is often referred to as the life blood of the engine. This analogy is not made simply because the oil circulates through the engine but more importantly because the oil performs critical functions necessary to maintain engine performance and maximize useful service life. There are two basic types of oil available today: mineral and synthetic. While these oils are completely different in composition, they must still meet the American Petroleum Institutes (API) qualification criteria recommended by the engine manufacturers. There are many suppliers of oil in the market today and not all meet the stringent requirements of the API standard. Insuring your oil meets these requirements and understanding the factors affecting the engine oil is the first step before extending your oil service interval.

 

Equipment operating extremes of heat, cold, idle time, airborne contaminants, and engine load adversely affect engine oil. Excessive Heat will break down engine oil and create deposits in the engine adversely affecting engine life. Severe cold will limit the ability of the engine oil to lubricate at start-up and may add unwanted moisture and unburned fuel to the oil. Extended Idle Time can result in increased amounts of unburned fuel entering the oil resulting in oil dilution and inadequate lubrication. Extreme dust conditions may tax even the best air filtration system adding fine contaminants to the oil overloading the additive package that keeps them in suspension. Heavy loads on the engine can produce extra heat putting a greater demand on the cooling system and increasing the importance of cooling system maintenance during EODI’s. Off-road operation will likely see more of these extremes than on-highway operation.

 

Engine designs today are cleaner burning with reduced emissions and make excellent candidates for extended oil drain intervals. However, most customers cannot afford to buy new equipment every year and normally fleets have a mixture of equipment varying in vintage and service life. As piston rings and valve guides wear in the engine, combustion by-products increase. These combustion by-products end up accelerating oil additive depletion and can create harmful deposits on internal engine surfaces making the engine less likely to benefit from an EODI.

 

Oil filters remove contaminants from the oil before they generate wear on engine component surfaces. There are many filtration products offered in the industry today with some claiming to allow for extended oil drain intervals. The fact is, the filter alone will not extend the life of engine oil. The filter has one function, and that is to filter contaminants from the oil. While most filters today do an excellent job in filtering, the trend of extending oil drain intervals 2 to 3 times the normal service interval has pushed the materials used in the manufacture of filters to the limit. Adhesives, rubber compounds, filter media, and even the steel construction in spin on filters needs to be designed to meet the extended period of time they are expected to be in service.

 

Before considering an EODI make sure the filter manufacturer will warranty their product when used in this manner. If after considering all the factors affecting extended oil drain intervals you feel your equipment is a candidate for EODI’s you will need to develop a test program to determine what length EODI is right for your equipment. To determine the correct length EODI you must first implement an oil analysis program to develop history on each piece of equipment scheduled for extended oil service. This will allow you to determine if there is any usable life left in the oil. The primary indicators will be silicon (dirt), viscosity (oil film strength), soot (combustion by-product), and total base number (TBN). Most engine manufacturers have oil analysis guidelines.

 

Typically you will want to keep your silicon within 15ppm of the initial oil sample, your viscosity within the original oil grade specifications, soot below 3%, and the TBN number above 3. Each piece of equipment will vary and the key is to look for trends in the analysis. If oil analysis indicates you can extend your service interval you then need to move out in steps. Oil analysis should continue at the normal service interval and in increments of 20% thereafter until the analysis shows the useful life of the oil deteriorating. Once the maximum limit on the oil is reached the change interval should be set at the mileage of the previous sampling prior to indications of oil deterioration. Example: Normal service interval = 16,000 miles (25,000 km). Oil analysis performed at 16,000 (25,000 km), 19,200 (30,000km), 22,400 (35,000 km), 25,600 (40,000 km), and 28,800 (45,000 km). If oil analysis indicates problems at 28,800 (45,000 km) the change interval should be backed off to 25,600 miles (40,000 km). This will allow for variables in operation and environment.

 

Extended oil drain intervals are not without risk and short term cost savings benefits should be balanced equally with engine performance and reliability. With all of the factors affecting the engine oil it is easy to see why OEM’s have traditionally been conservative in setting oil drain intervals. If you think your equipment is a candidate for EODI program, do some research. Check with your filter, engine, and oil manufacturer for guidance. If you’re not doing oil analysis, start a program. Review your filtration package and most of all understand the potential risks involved. If not properly implemented EODI short term savings are offset by expensive repairs and downtime further down the road. Always dispose of used engine oil and filters properly.

Filter Servicing Steps

The Filter Guys

Listed here are recommended practices from Donaldson for servicing and handling engine liquid filters. This servicing information is provided as a best practices guide. Donaldson recommends that where possible, follow the filter service instructions supplied by your original equipment manufacturer. It is not intended to replace or supersede the service instructions supplied by your equipment or vehicle manufacturer.

 

We Offer Donaldson Engine and Hydraulic Aftermarket Filters to replace Baldwin Filters in the UK.

The Filter Guys

We Offer Donaldson Engine and Hydraulic Aftermarket Filters to replace Baldwin Filters in the UK.

At Sterling Filtration Ltd we offer over 3,000 Donaldson equivalent filters to replace your Baldwin filters. They cover a huge range of engine filters (main air, safety air, lubricating oil, fuel, fuel water separators) and hydraulic system filters.

Please check out our range by clicking on the Donaldson Brand Icon below.

If you have any requirements for Baldwin equivalent filters please give us a call today on 01902 491118. We are here to service your filter needs!

Filters for Trucks

The Filter Guys

Filters for Trucks.

The range of trucks in the haulage and transportation sector in the UK is vast and they all require engine and hydraulic filter elements. Our range of aftermarket filters covers a huge range of these applications including filters for: Dennis Eagle, ERF, Foden, Hino, Hyundai, Isuzu, Iveco, DAF, MAN, Mercedes, Scania, Volvo and many, many more.

Regular, scheduled maintenance of your engine and hydraulic circuit filters can avoid breakdowns and lengthy downtime of your machine. Holding a set of filters in stock can also reduce the amount of time that your machine is down when the lead time for replacement filters is more than a few days.

At Sterling Filtration we endeavour to hold as much stock for as many machines as possible. If you have an urgent filter requirement, a breakdown to repair or are just looking for competitively priced filters for stock please give us a call today.

Donaldson Filtration

Heavy Duty Applications

The Filter Guys

Our aftermarket filtration range covers a huge section of heavy duty applications.

The heavy duty aftermarket in the UK is made up of many hundreds of machines and static equipment that require regular filter servicing to maintain their optimum performance. We can identify and hold large stocks of filters for machines including: Atlast Copco, Barford, Benford, Bomag, Case Poclain, Caterpillar, Doosan Daewoo, Demag, Fiat Hitachi and Kobelco, Fuchs, Hanix, Hyundai, Iveco, John Deere, Kaeser, Komatsu, Kubota, Liebherr, Lombardini, Massey Ferguson, Matbro, Mitsubishi, New Holland, Samsung, Shaeff, Sennebogen, Takeuchi, Terex, Volvo, Yanmar and many, many more.

Regular, scheduled maintenance of your engine and hydraulic circuit filters can avoid breakdowns and lengthy downtime of your machine. Holding a set of filters in stock can also reduce the amount of time that your machine is down when the lead time for replacement filters is more than a few days.

At Sterling Filtration we endeavour to hold as much stock for as many machines as possible. If you have an urgent filter requirement, a breakdown to repair or are just looking for competitively priced filters for stock please give us a call today.

Donaldson Filtration

SCHUPP FILTERS NOW AVAILABLE

The Filter Guys

Schupp filters are now available from Sterling Filtration Ltd. Schupp are a worldwide brand offering 1000’s of aftermarket air, lube oil, fuel and hydraulic filters for many common on and off highway applications. We can offer competitively priced Schupp original filters, what ever your current Schupp original requirements may be.

If you require Schupp filter replacement elements please give us a call today.

WIX FILTERS NOW AVAILABLE

The Filter Guys

Wix filters are now available from Sterling Filtration Ltd. Wix are a worldwide brand offering 1000’s of aftermarket air, lube oil, fuel and hydraulic filters for many common on and off highway applications. We can offer competitively priced Wix original filters, what ever your current Wix original requirements may be.

If you require WAM filter replacement elements please give us a call today.

Compatibility of Filter Media with Hydraulic Fluids

The Filter Guys

Compatibility of Filter Media.

Filter media can be divided into two broad categories, natural fibres (usually cellulose) and synthetic or man made fibres (usually fibre glass or woven wire mesh), although many different variations and types of media do exist, many filters fall into one of these two categories.

Fluid to be Filtered Recommended Media
Petroleum-based Cellulose, Glass fibre
Phosphate Ester Glass Fibre
Diester Glass Fibre
Water Glycol Glass Fibre
Water-Oil Emulsion Glass Fibre
Biodegradable Fluid HWCF* Glass Fibre
Course Filtration Wire Mesh

* High water content filtration

Notes on seals:

Filters with seals made of BunaN are appropriate for most applications involving petroleum oil and some high water content fluids. Filters with seals made of Viton® of Fluorel® (both fluoroelastomers) are required when using diesters, phosphate ester fluids.

(Viton and Fluorel are registered trademarks of DuPont Dow Elastomers and 3M)

Don’t Retighten a Lube or Oil Filter Once it has Been Installed.

The Filter Guys

To avoid cross-threading DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN OR RETIGHTEN a filter. Follow These Proper Steps for Installation of Engine Lube Spin-on Filters

The spin-on engine lube filter is a commonly serviced component on your vehicle. To insure normal oil filter service life and to prevent oil leakage or possible internal engine damage, the following procedure should be followed when replacing spin-on engine lube filters.

Before Installation:

  • Unscrew and remove the old filter.
  • Remove the old filter gasket if still attached to the base.
  • Wipe the filter mounting base or head with a clean cloth.

To Install a Spin-on Lube Filter:

1. If manufacturer recommends, fill new filter with oil on the dirty side. Do not pour the oil down the clean oil centre tube.

2. Apply a thin film of clean motor oil to the new filter gasket. Do not use grease.

3. To avoid cross-threading, line up the filter threads to the mounting base/head carefully. Screw the new filter on until the gasket contacts the base.

4. Follow the instructions on the filter for final tightening torque specification. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN.

5. Check the gasket of the new filter to be sure it is properly seated in the groove.

Note that not all filters require the use of tools for changing.

After Installation:

6. Be sure the oil reaches the full level on the dipstick.

7. Start engine and check for leaks around the oil filter and drain plug. Correct the source of leaks if any are observed.

8. Shut the engine off and recheck the oil level. Add oil if needed.

Always dispose of old oil and used filters responsibly.

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