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Filter Servicing Steps

The Filter Guys

Listed here are recommended practices from Donaldson for servicing and handling engine liquid filters. This servicing information is provided as a best practices guide. Donaldson recommends that where possible, follow the filter service instructions supplied by your original equipment manufacturer. It is not intended to replace or supersede the service instructions supplied by your equipment or vehicle manufacturer.

 

Where Contamination Comes From

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New Fluids

Adding new fluid can be a source of contamination. Even though it’s fresh from the drum, new engine oil isn’t clean. (It may look clean, but, remember, the human eye can only see a particle the size of about 40 μm.) Also, diesel fuel cleanliness varies from pump to pump. Typical fuel cleanliness levels coming out of the pump are ISO rated at 22/21/18. (ISO cleanliness code of 22/21/18 translates to a particle count of 20,000 to 40,000 per millilitre for particles of 4 μm and greater; 10,000 to 20,000 per millilitre for particles of 6 μm and greater; and 1300 to 2500 per millilitre for particles of 14 μm and greater), and water content is typically 200 to 300 ppm. Never assume your fluids are clean until it has been filtered.

 

Built-In

Built-in contamination, also called primary contamination, is caused during the manufacture, assembly and testing of the engine and its components. Metal filings, small burrs, dirt or sand and other contaminants are routinely found in initial clean up filtration of newly manufactured engines.

 

Ingressed

Ingressed or external contamination comes from the environment surrounding the engine or vehicle. Dirt can enter the engine liquid supply through crank case breathers or fuel tank breathers and vents and the air intake system. Ingressed moisture, particularly, can cause longer term problems. As a hot system cools at night, cool moisture-laden air can be drawn into the engine or fuel tank; as the air condenses, water is released into the engine or fuel tank. Water in excess of 0.5% by volume in a hydrocarbon-based fluid accelerates the formation of acids, sludge and oxidation that can attack internal components, cause rust, and adversely affect lubrication properties. The severity of ingression and type of contaminant are dictated by the applications and environment.

 

Induced

Maintenance procedures can introduce contamination into the engine. Opening the engine allows airborne particles to enter. Removing air filters, opening oil caps, fuel tank caps and removal of oil and fuel filters are all possible sources for introducing contamination to an engine. Keep your system closed as much as possible and take care to be sure everything that goes into the engine is as clean as possible. One common example is very often funnels are used fill the engine with oil. The oily funnel will collect dirt between uses. The funnel should be properly cleaned before using it to fill the engine with oil.

 

In-Operation

The major sources of contamination in the engine are the combustion by-products (soot) and oxidation of the fluids in the engine due to the thermal stressing. Wear-generated contaminants are a hazard during engine operation.

 

 

 

The circuit actually generates additional particles as the fluid comes into contact with the precision machined surfaces of cylinder walls and pistons, injector needles and pistons and crankshaft bearings. Contaminant levels can keep doubling with every new particle generated. The result can be catastrophic if these contaminants are not properly filtered out of the system.

 

Rubber & Elastomers

Due to temperature, time, and high-velocity fluid streams, rubber compounds and elastomers degrade—thus releasing particulates into the fluid.

 

Biodiesel

Biodiesel can support biological growth and generate organic contamination and microbes.

 

Donaldson Filtration

Filter elements for compressors.

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Filter elements for compressors.

Pneumatic tools are ineffective if not maintained correctly. Dirt and liquid particles in your compressors air line can cause lengthy and expensive breakdowns or completely destroy your equipment. Regular maintenance is essential to avoid this happening especially at this time of year when cold temperatures can cause freezing of water droplets that may collect in your air lines.

Sterling Filtration Ltd can offer a wide range of filter elements to service your compressor machine needs. We have a wide range of parts available through our extensive supply chain to service machines including, but not limited to, Ingersoll Rand, Zander, Bauer, Hydrovane, Kaeser, Husky and Compair compressors.

We supply 1, 0.1 and 0.01 micron filter elements for inline compressed air use as well as being able to offer the complete assemblies too. We also stock air, oil and fuel filters for large compressor engines as well as air/oil separators for many applications.

Remember it is cost effective to regularly service your filter elements than not service your equipment. A strict maintenance procedure can stop a problem before it starts.

Pre-line Fuel Filtration Housing.

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Today, diesel vehicles are fitted with the latest high performance fuel injection systems. As a result, fuel filtration must meet far more demanding requirements. Pre-Line is a universal and practical pre-filter system, based on the spin-on filter concept, which provides an ideal, cost-saving retrofit solution.

Features and advantages

  • Use with diesel fuel DIN ISO 590 (5% FAME), DIN 51 628 (7% FAME)
  • Up to 600 l/h volume flow rate
  • Use of multigrade high performance media
  • 93% water separation
  • Modular system with excellent flexibility
  • Easy to service
  • Integrated, effective and easy to handle hand pump with 45 degree position to drain off water and for priming during service
  • Integrated water collector
  • Parallel operation possible with a number of systems

These filter housings from Mann Filter are available from Sterling Filtration Ltd.

 

Compatibility of Filter Media with Hydraulic Fluids

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Compatibility of Filter Media.

Filter media can be divided into two broad categories, natural fibres (usually cellulose) and synthetic or man made fibres (usually fibre glass or woven wire mesh), although many different variations and types of media do exist, many filters fall into one of these two categories.

Fluid to be Filtered Recommended Media
Petroleum-based Cellulose, Glass fibre
Phosphate Ester Glass Fibre
Diester Glass Fibre
Water Glycol Glass Fibre
Water-Oil Emulsion Glass Fibre
Biodegradable Fluid HWCF* Glass Fibre
Course Filtration Wire Mesh

* High water content filtration

Notes on seals:

Filters with seals made of BunaN are appropriate for most applications involving petroleum oil and some high water content fluids. Filters with seals made of Viton® of Fluorel® (both fluoroelastomers) are required when using diesters, phosphate ester fluids.

(Viton and Fluorel are registered trademarks of DuPont Dow Elastomers and 3M)

Don’t Throw Away a Good Filter Just Because it Might Look Dirty.

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Don’t Throw Away a Good Filter Just Because it Might Look Dirty.

Although this air filter may look “dirty” – It can go plenty more miles. Installation of a restriction indicator can save you money and time.Why Service By Restriction?

Proper air cleaner servicing will result in maximum engine protection against the ravages of dust. Proper servicing can also save you time and money by increasing filter life and dust cleaning efficiency. By using proper filter restriction measurement tools you will use the full life of the filter at maximum efficiency. Don’t be fooled by filter appearance: it should look dirty.

The only way to determine when a filter is plugged or plugging is to measure the restriction on the system with the engine working at max airflow.

Two of the most common air cleaner servicing problems are:

1. Over-servicing: the least efficient time in the life of the filter is when it is new. Filter elements increase in efficiency as dust builds up on the media.

2. Improper servicing: your engine is highly vulnerable to abrasive dust contaminants during the servicing process when the filter is removed from the housing. A leading cause of engine damage is due to careless servicing procedures.

Watch Out for Old Compression Gaskets.

The Filter Guys

Watch Out for Old Compression Gaskets. When changing any filter that has a gasket – use caution as old gaskets may stick.

A compression seal is a means of preventing migration of liquids, gases or solid contaminates across a joint or opening in an assembly or housing. A seal not only prevents the escape of fluid from inside and foreign material from entering the system from outside, but it must provide for easy installation and removal. A new gasket is critical for proper filter function.

Remember…

  • Remove used gaskets and clean the sealing area thoroughly
  • Always use a new gasket with a replacement filter
  • Over-tightening the filter may damage the head
  • Dispose of used filters properly

Threaded Compressed Air Filters

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Sterling Filtration offers a comprehensive range of threaded Compressed Air Filters with 19 models offering connections from ¼” to 3” and capacities up to 2550 Nm3/h (1500SCFM)

Optimised modular housing design ensures high performance, ease of installation and multiple close coupling. Manufactured in cast aluminium alloy with Walker E-coat protection for a robust and corrosion resistant product.

Custom engineered media for optimised performance & efficiency

Oleophobic borosilicate media and a custom engineered anti re-entrainment layer guarantees exceptional dirt holding and drainage. Unique material construction minimises pressure drop and improves energy efficiency.

Self centralising, drop-fit, ant-vibration, colour coded elements

A unique endcap design which engages with the bowl, prevents vibration, improves stability and assists drainage. Colour coded elements make grade identification swift and simple.

Intelligent, unique, modular filter housing design

  • Filter elements are available in 25, 5, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 micron.
  • Pop up indicators are fitted as standard to some designs.
  • Differential pressure indicators are fitted to some designs.
  • Activated carbon filters must not operate in oil saturated conditions and will not remove certain types of gases including carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Filter elements should be changed every 12 months or 8000 hours, whichever comes first.

Donaldson Powercore (TM) Element

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Donaldson Powercore ™ offers much more filtration in a smaller housing unit allowing system optimisation at affordable prices. Elements are metal free in their construction making them lightweight and the compact nature can free up space in your work area or engine. Donaldson Powercore elements are non-metal and can be incinerated and are environmentally friendly. They are available from Sterling Filtration Ltd.

Powercore™ Standard Product Line

MAIN ELEMENT SAFETY ELEMENT APPLICATION INSTALLATION
P608533 P600975 PSD08 0026 VERTICAL
P608533 P600975 PSD08 0020 HORIZONTAL
P608665 P606121 PSD09 0019 VERTICAL (SHORT)
P608665 P606121 PSD09 0020 HORIZONTAL (SHORT)
P608675 P606121 PSD09 0021 VERTICAL (LONG)
P608675 P606121 PSD09 0022 HORIZONTAL (LONG)
P608666 P601560 PSD10 0029 VERTICAL (SHORT)
P608666 P601560 PSD10 0030 HORIZONTAL (SHORT)
P608676 P601560 PSD10 0031 VERTICAL (LONG)
P608676 P601560 PSD10 0032 HORIZONTAL (LONG)
P608667 P607557 PSD12 0035 VERTICAL (SHORT)
P608667 P607557 PSD12 0036 HORIZONTAL (SHORT)
P608677 P607557 PSD12 0037 VERTICAL (LONG)
P608677 P607557 PSD12 0038 HORIZONTAL (LONG)

Also available are consumable items such as access covers, U-Clip mountings, Vacuator™ valves, adapters & check valves.

Mann & Hummel Centrifuges/Oil Filters

The Filter Guys

MANN+HUMMEL centrifuges clean oil by generating centrifugal force 2,000 times greater than gravity. It is this force that separates solid contaminant from the oil. This technology has been proven to remove contaminant down to a sub-micron size, which is advantageous to both engine producers and users.

The Benefits:

• Cleaner oil

• Extension of oil life

• Lengthens service intervals

• Reduces engine wear

• Enhances long-term preventative maintenance

• Reduces maintenance costs

• Cuts waste disposal costs

• Reduces application down time

• Maximises in-service time for vehicle/engines/machine

MANN+HUMMEL centrifugal oil cleaners are internationally recognised in providing superior bypass filtration for the removal of contaminant from the lubricating oil of Diesel engines. The technology can also be successfully used for gearboxes, hydraulics and other industrial fluids.

MANN+HUMMEL provide its centrifuge technology to the following market sectors:

• Trucks

• Buses

• Marine

• Power Generation

• Mining Machinery

• Locomotives

• Construction

• Agriculture

• Military

• Industrial Fluids

• Reduces total cost of ownership

• Helps ensure clean combustion and fuel efficiency

• Supports engine technology for the reduction of exhaust emissions (e.g. exhaust gas recirculation)

• Fast return on investment

Full flow filters are designed to process all the oil used to lubricate the moving parts of the engine. However, the need to maintain a high flow and limit pressure drop across the filtration media restricts the ability to filter out sub-micron particles. This job is taken over by the centrifugal oil cleaner in the bypass. The MANN+HUMMEL centrifugal oil cleaner processes approximately 10 % of the oil flow provided by the engine pump before returning it directly to the engine sump. The removal of particles by centrifugal force is based on their relative density and therefore there is no restriction on contaminant size.

If you require more information or a competitive quote on these items please call Sterling Filtration Ltd on 01902 491118.

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