Where Contamination Comes From.
New Hydraulic Fluid
Adding new fluid can be a source; even though it’s fresh from the drum, new hydraulic fluid isn’t clean. (It may look clean, but, remember, the human eye can only see a particle the size of about 40 μm.) Oil out of shipping containers is usually contaminated to a level above what is acceptable for most hydraulic systems: typically, new fluid has a cleanliness level about the same as ISO Code 23/21/19, and water content is typically 200 to 300 ppm. Never assume your oil is clean until it has been filtered. One very effective way of ensuring thorough fluid conditioning is with a dedicated off-line circulation loop, or “kidney” loop filtration.
Built-in contamination, also called primary contamination, is caused during the manufacture, assembly and testing of hydraulic components. Metal filings, small burrs, pieces of Teflon tape, sand and other contaminants are routinely found in initial clean up filtration of newly manufactured systems.
Ingressed or external contamination comes from the environment surrounding the system. Dirt can enter the hydraulic fluid supply through leaking seals, reservoir breather caps, and worn cylinder rod seals. Ingressed moisture, particularly, can cause long-term problems. As a hot system cools at night, cool moisture-laden air can be drawn into the reservoir; as the air condenses, water is released into the reservoir. Water in excess of 0.5% by volume in a hydrocarbon-based fluid accelerates the formation of acids, sludge and oxidation that can attack internal components, cause rust, and adversely affect lubrication properties. The severity of ingression and type of contaminant are dictated by the applications and environment.
Maintenance procedures can introduce contamination into the system. Opening the system allows airborne particles to enter. Leaving the system open during operation provides continuous ambient particle ingression. Keep your system closed as much as possible.
The major source of contamination are the pump and actuators, the hydraulic cylinder, or the hydraulic motor. Wear-generated contaminants are a hazard during normal hydraulic system operation. The circuit actually generates additional particles as the fluid comes into contact with the precision machined surfaces of valves, motors and pumps. Contaminant levels can keep doubling with every new particle generated. The result can be catastrophic if these contaminants are not properly filtered out of the system.
Rubber & Elastomers
Due to temperature, time, and high-velocity fluid streams, rubber compounds and elastomers degrade—thus releasing particulates into the fluid. This may be from hoses, accumulator bladders, seals, or other elastomer products.
High Water Based Fluids
The water in HWBF tends to support biological growth and generate organic contamination and microbes.
Replacement of Failed Components
Failure to thoroughly clean fluid conductor lines after replacing a failed hydraulic pump will cause premature catastrophic failure. Donaldson recommends frequent oil sampling to ensure proper contamination control. Sample test points should be close to hydraulic pumps and at other key locations that provide safe, reliable access to the fluid while under full system pressure.